Additives Used in Blood: Variable Safety for Human Consumption

Additives Used in Blood: Variable Safety for Human Consumption

https://theredcellar.com/2016/03/18/additives-used-in-blood-variable-safety-for-human-consumption/

  By Lethenteron, Syrf and CJ!

Of the many techniques sanguinarians use to draw their donors’ blood, one of the most effective, for those who get trained or have a trained donor, is phlebotomy.  Vacuum-infused blood collection tubes allow for a clean draw and a precise quantity. [n1]

There are a myriad of different additives used in blood collection, each with specific properties. This post discusses the utility of certain chemicals as they are presented in prepared phlebotomy blood collection containers. Heparin, EDTA and tri-sodium citrate might be used slightly differently and in different ratios if you are adding the raw materials to the blood yourself. [n2]

Some of those chemicals are toxic in certain quantities and potentially harmful if ingested too frequently. Here, I provide personal experience along with a concise literature review of the relevant properties and known toxicity of each additive cited.

For the purpose of this post, it’s relevant to point out we will be using the color code used by  BD Brand Vacutainers, a widely used supplier. Other brands may use different color codes. Pay attention and know what you’re getting, other brands not mentioned in this article may use a different color code and contain materials that should not be ingested.

Here is a guide to BD Vacutainer colours :

https://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/plus_plastic_tubes_wallchart_tubeguide_VS5229.pdf

Here I’ll speak about the following 4 types of vacutainers :

– No additive

– Sodium Heparin

– Trisodium Citrate

– k2EDTA or k3EDTA

And the additive most commonly found in blood collection bags :

– Citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA-1)

(A small disclaimer: Blood collection tubes are specifically for use in blood analysis. They are NOT intended to collect blood that will be infused in a patient or consumed as a food or medical item. In this sense, the use of vacutainers with additives necessarily comes with a non-negligible risk and it is at your own discretion that you may use them for that purpose.)

Plain Tube / No additive

"vacutainerplaintube"

Blood is drawn into vacutainers without additive.

The major disadvantage of using a no additive tube is that drawn blood will coagulate rapidly and the contents of the vial must be ingested quickly. The main advantage, however, is the peace of mind of getting additive-free blood, with no toxicity concerns or possible interactions or alteration of the blood by the chemicals.

Conclusions:

Safety: No additional risks beyond the expected risks associated with the ingestion of blood.

Sodium Heparin (Na Heparin)

"sodiumheparintube"

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. It is also used to form an inner anticoagulant surface on various experimental and medical devices such as test tubes and renal dialysis machines.

Heparin acts as an anticoagulant, preventing the formation of clots and extension of existing clots within the blood, preventing venous thromboembolism. It is also increasingly recognized that heparin has many other pharmacological properties including but not limited to antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastatic actions. (Mulloy et al, 2016)

However, heparin must be given parenterally (administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract) for it to be effective for thinning the blood within the body. When given orally, the body digests it before it can be made of any use. This is why a lot of research has gone toward finding ways to administer heparin orally with the help of specialised, carrier molecules. (Arbit et al, 2006)

Conclusions:

Safety: No known toxicity, inactivated by digestion, generally safe.

Word of caution: Pharmaceutical-grade heparin is derived from mucosal tissues of slaughtered meat animals such as porcine (pig) intestines or bovine (cattle) lungs. There have been recalls of commonly used injectable heparin due to risks of bacterial contamination. It is not known if the risks are lower or higher with spray coated heparin in collection tubes.

Note:

Vacutainers containing any additive mentioned here must be gently inverted (turned upside down) 8-10 times to ensure that the additive with be properly mixed into the blood. [n1.3]

Blood preserved with heparin tends to separate [n1.5]. when left static and will eventually start to form clots after 4/5 days.

Sodium Citrate (Trisodium citrate)

"sodiumcitrate"

Sodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. Its E number (a code for food additives) is E331. Sodium citrate is employed as a tart flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda and commercial ready to drink beverages and drink mixes. Sodium citrate is common as an ingredient in bratwurst, ice-cream, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine.

In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used sodium citrate as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions. It continues to be used today in blood collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood by forming calcium citrate complexes, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism.

Toxicology of Sodium Citrate

http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/68-04-2

Conclusions:

Safety: Generally safe. Sometimes used to preserve animal blood for cooking. Contraindication for people with impaired renal function.

Note: Sodium Citrate does add a tart, slightly salty flavor to the blood and for this reason, may be less preferable to the person ingesting the blood than tasteless additives.

Sodium Citrate vacutainers must be inverted 3-4 times, gently (Vigorous mixing or shaking of a specimen may cause hemolysis, which means rupture or laceration of the cell walls. There is some indication that preservation of intact red cells is relevant for our purpose, though there is no conclusive evidence I’m aware of to support this).

 

EDTA

"BD

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, widely abbreviated as EDTA is a chelating agent (a substance whose molecules can form several bonds to a single metal ion) that is widely used  by various industries. Various forms of EDTA are used as ingredients in cosmetics, pesticides, household disinfectants, laundry detergent, eye drops and are frequently added to food as a preservative. In laboratories, EDTA is used extensively in the analysis of blood as an anticoagulant for blood samples for CBC/FBEs.

An important use of EDTA is in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning (lead and mercury) and in the treatment of excess iron in the blood. Injected intravenously, once in the bloodstream EDTA traps lead and other metals forming a compound that the body can eliminate in the urine.

(EDTA dipotassium salt dihydrate & EDTA Tripotassium Salt)

K2 EDTA is available in a spray-dried form, which does not introduce dilutional effects on small sample volumes. It is associated with a less pronounced osmotic effect on blood cells than K3 EDTA, but it appears to be associated with more complaints regarding blood clotting. In fact, as K2 EDTA is dispensed as a powder on the inside walls of the vial, primary tubes containing this additive may need to be properly mixed to allow a complete miscibility between the blood and the anticoagulant.

Studies published by the The International Council for Standardization in Haematology and NCCLS show morphological alterations to the blood cells are more pronounced when K3-EDTA is used than K2-EDTA [n3]. We may want to take this into consideration.  Basically, K3-EDTA osmotically shrinks the red cells, and being liquid rather than a salt spray, dilutes the sample. Further dilution expands the red cells to normal size during medical analysis which is why the effect is often considered negligible, but seeing as we’re skipping the laboratory analysis and guzzling it instead, I’d go with Dipotassium EDTA.

While the CLSI US Standard for Venous Blood Collection declines to differentiate between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA as separate options for use as an anticoagulant [n2], the International Council for Standardization in Hematology currently recommends K2 EDTA as the anticoagulant of choice for hematological testing. This indication has been widely acknowledged in Europe and Japan, whereas K3 EDTA is still frequently used in the United States and the United Kingdom.

By binding to the calcium in blood, EDTA effectively prevents the coagulation cascade and irreversibly prevents blood clotting so it will always remain in a fluid state.

The anticoagulant of choice in routine haematology https://www.researchgate.net/publication/21362193_K2 HYPERLINK 

Safety Data Sheet for K3EDTA

*Note: K2-EDTA light and heat sensitive. [n2.5]

Some proponents of alternative medicine claim that EDTA, particularly calcium Disodium EDTA, when taken orally acts as an antioxidant and helps fight cardiovascular diseases and improves blood flow. However, these ideas not yet conclusive, and seem to contradict some currently accepted principles. The proposed health benefits of oral chelations therapies have not been proven to be effective (Green 2009).

An example of a product sold as an oral chelation therapy consisting of a “Proprietary blend of 3 types of Sodium based EDTA, which are all food-grade amino acids” is [n4]. Their pills are sold in 450 mg doses, with the recommended daily dose for the first two weeks being 2.7 grams per day. Meanwhile WebMD states that “It is UNSAFE to use more than 3 grams of EDTA per day, or to take it longer than 5 to 7 days. Too much can cause kidney damage, dangerously low calcium levels, and death.” [n5] For comparison, a standard EDTA vacutainer will contain up to 10 milligrams of k3EDTA. One would have to consume 300 vials in one day to consume 3 grams of EDTA.

Safety:

This report:  http://gov.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/FR285.pdf  is a mine of information on EDTA toxicity, both oral, intravenous and cutaneous. It summarizes pretty much all of the human and animal studies performed on the toxicity of EDTA for the past 20 years. Here are the most relevant points for the purposes of consumption.

Continued use of oral EDTA has been shown to result in a loss of necessary trace metals, such a zinc and calcium, which can lead to complications and heart disease. The CIR Expert Panel recognized that oral exposures to EDTA produced reproductive/ developmental toxicity in test animals. Demineralization of teeth was also observed.

It is important to note that we are not aware of any studies having been conducted regarding on the effects of oral ingestion of K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA. There are important differences in the way the human body metabolizes EDTA in it’s various forms and without further knowledge we cannot at this time predict the health consequences of using this anticoagulant for blood preservation for the purpose of ingestion other than to use previous studies as a guide.[n6]

Conclusions:

Oral use of EDTA in humans has never been studied in a large group of people and over a long enough period of time to determine the safe dose and the extent of resulting trace element deficiencies. The information available on oral toxicity of EDTA on animals is sometimes conflicting. The long-term toxicity of EDTA is complicated by its ability to chelate essential and toxic metals, both in water and in animals. Toxicity data are therefore equivocal and difficult to interpret.

There is no sufficient evidence to say that EDTA consumed regularly is entirely safe.  There are serious concerns that its continued use might create deficiencies in trace metals such a zinc and calcium; damage teeth by means of demineralization and damage different tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. While the quantities present in vacutainers might not be enough to cause  toxicological effects, caution should be advised. I would definitely not recommend the use of EDTA for Sanguinarians who need frequent and heavy feedings.

K2-EDTA is considered hazardous by the 2012 OSHA Hazard Communication Standard [n6.5]

Citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA-1)

"cpdabag"

Additive most often found in blood collection bags.

An anticoagulant solution, containing citric acid, sodium citrate, monobasic sodium phosphate, dextrose, and adenine, used for the preservation of whole blood and red blood cells for up to 35 days; it extends red cell survival by providing adenine needed for the maintenance of red cell ATP.

(http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CPDA-1)

Conclusions:

Safety: Thought safe to drink.

note:

CPDA-1 has a very long shelf life but I find it to have a strong, nearly cloying taste.

————————————————————————————————————————-

[n1] Any blood drawing should only be done by someone who is trained to do so or risk injury to the donor. Any individual choosing to draw blood and consume it does so at their own discretion, responsibility, and risk.

[n1.3] Regarding invertion of vacutainers for activation of anticoalgulents:

http://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_Jan2004_VS7167.pdf

[n1.5]  A visual guide to blood seperation:

http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-components

[n2] A discussion on how to prepare EDTA as anticoagulant for human blood collection :

https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_to_prepare_EDTA_as_anticoagulant_for_human_blood_collection

[n2.5] Details regarding preffered storage methods of EDTA including sensativity to heat and sunlight:  https://www.fishersci.com/shop/msdsproxy?storeId=10652&productName=AC409965000&productDescription=

[n3] https://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_May2002_VS5998.pdf

http://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_Jan2009_VS8014.pdf.

[n3.5] CLSI US Standard for Venous Blood Collection:

https://www.sarstedt.com/fileadmin/user_upload/99_Literatur/US/619_EDTA_Antikoagulantien_US.pdf

[n4] An example of a webite selling oral chelation pills found here: http://cardiorenewcanada.ca/6weekfoundationprogram.php

[n5] Article noting an decrease in clotting time associated with K2-EDTA when compared to K3-EDTA: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/568506_4

[n6] An article discussing the differences in various forms of EDTA as they pertain to oral chelation therapy: http://www.smart-publications.com/articles/the-business-of-chelation-and-why-EDTA-oral-chelation-is-best

[n6.5] K2-EDTA- OSHA Hazard Communication Standard:

https://www.fishersci.com/shop/msdsproxy?storeId=10652&productName=AC409965000&productDescription=

[n7] WebMD’s health warnings regarding EDTA: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1032-edta.aspx?activeingredientid=1032&

————————————————————————————————————————-

Mulloy, B., J Hogwood, E Gray, R Lever, CP Page. “Pharmacology of Heparin and Related Drugs.” Pharmacology Review. 2016 Jan;68(1):76-141

Ehud Arbit,  Michael Goldberg, Isabel Gomez-Orellana, and Shingai Majuru.Thromb J, 2006. “Oral heparin: status review” Thrombosis Journal. 10 May 2006, 4:6 

Arzoumanian, Lena. “Tech Talk.” BD. Retrived February 2, 2016 <https://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_May2002_VS5998.pdf>

Brown, M. J.; Willis, T.; Omalu, B.; Leiker, R. (2006). “Deaths Resulting from Hypocalcemia After Administration of Edetate Disodium: 2003-2005”. Pediatrics 118 (2): e534.

Green, Saul; Wallace Sampson. December 14, 2002. “EDTA Chelation Therapy for Atherosclerosis And Degenerative Diseases: Implausibility and Paradoxical Oxidant Effects”. Quackwatch. Retrieved 16 December 2009. <http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/chelationimp.html>

” data-medium-file=”” data-large-file=”” class=”size-medium wp-image-279 aligncenter” src=”https://countessalexia.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/vacutainerbloodbottles.jpg?w=300″ alt=”vacutainerbloodbottles”>

By Lethenteron, Syrf and CJ!

Of the many techniques sanguinarians use to draw their donors’ blood, one of the most effective, for those who get trained or have a trained donor, is phlebotomy.  Vacuum-infused blood collection tubes allow for a clean draw and a precise quantity. [n1]

There are a myriad of different additives used in blood collection, each with specific properties. This post discusses the utility of certain chemicals as they are presented in prepared phlebotomy blood collection containers. Heparin, EDTA and tri-sodium citrate might be used slightly differently and in different ratios if you are adding the raw materials to the blood yourself. [n2]

Some of those chemicals are toxic in certain quantities and potentially harmful if ingested too frequently. Here, I provide personal experience along with a concise literature review of the relevant properties and known toxicity of each additive cited.

For the purpose of this post, it’s relevant to point out we will be using the color code used by  BD Brand Vacutainers, a widely used supplier. Other brands may use different color codes. Pay attention and know what you’re getting, other brands not mentioned in this article may use a different color code and contain materials that should not be ingested.

Here is a guide to BD Vacutainer colours :

https://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/plus_plastic_tubes_wallchart_tubeguide_VS5229.pdf

Here I’ll speak about the following 4 types of vacutainers :

– No additive

– Sodium Heparin

– Trisodium Citrate

– k2EDTA or k3EDTA

And the additive most commonly found in blood collection bags :

– Citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA-1)

(A small disclaimer: Blood collection tubes are specifically for use in blood analysis. They are NOT intended to collect blood that will be infused in a patient or consumed as a food or medical item. In this sense, the use of vacutainers with additives necessarily comes with a non-negligible risk and it is at your own discretion that you may use them for that purpose.)

Plain Tube / No additive

I first came across the Online Vampire Community in 1999, while researching the Therian and Otherkin communities as a child. I was looking for explanations for the “trans-species” body dysmorphia that has been with me most of my life, and the two communities existed at the time and continue to exist in relative close proximity.

My reaction to a cursory evaluation of the “Real Vampire” website was a somewhat self conscious “Pfft…People who think they’re VAMPIRES? Come on, now.”….after which I continued reading theories about animal souls being misplaced and trapped in human bodies (yes, with a slightly uncomfortable feeling of hypocrisy).

My Therianthropy stayed with me, though, after initial research into theories. With the exception of occasional re-visitation for the reassurance that at least what I was feeling was not unique, I largely did not look back at the online Therian/Otherkin community. The offered explanations of spiritual causes did not resonate with my critical perspective. The claims of access to supernatural realms or possession of special powers or physical abilities beyond the norm they attributed to this “Other-species” condition bestowed upon me more self-doubt than they did comfort. I could not identify with a belief system that supported such claims which went against my own personal sense of logic and intuition which, from my perspective, devalued and discredited the community behind them.

Skip ahead to 2003. I’m sitting in my school’s computer lab feeding the google search bar with every variation of “Human+Blood+Drinking” I can fathom and I spend several hours sifting through anthropological articles describing ceremonies of isolated primitive tribes, medical papers describing safety risks of including blood in the human diet, cultural histories of blood drinking, mythologies, and articles about various hematophagous insects and other critters who’s prey included humans. These were the days only a scant few years before National Geographic started featuring human blood drinkers on shows like “Taboo”, and it was literally HOURS before my young mind finally thought to plug in the word

“Vampire”.

“Real+Living+Human+Vampire”. Bingo. Finding myself, somewhat ironically, right back at Drink Deeply and Dream, I finally started reading. I remember maintaining my incredulity, eyeing the dramatic format and writing style of the site with distrust, but at some point I wandered onto a description of a “craving” state, and it struck an all too familiar nerve. My memories of the next few months are fuzzy, except that I became very depressed, that this concept dominated my thoughts, my grades faltered, my interpersonal relationships suffered and that I locked myself in my room several times to curl up on the floor, worried I may hurt someone if I didn’t isolate myself. I think I tried researching it a few more times during that period but it usually ended up either frustrating or triggering me unpleasantly. I became despondent.

A few years later, I had my first human donor, and became aware of sites like Sanguinarius.org and Sphynxcat’s Real Vampire Support Page. The atmosphere among vampires active online at the time was such that when I did reach out for help I was told to “learn how to Psi feed”. I gave it a good go; truly I did. Despite the concept being at odds with my belief system, I was desperate for relief and attempted to visualize everything I was instructed to and to imbue these visualizations with as much faith and feeling as I could muster. Meanwhile, I kept my violent thoughts and impulses to myself, thinking them private and shameful. The dominating theory that the cause of my symptoms was energy deprivation and that the answer was to absorb metaphysical life force was the reason I abandoned the online vampire community as a possible source of answers and decided to try to figure things out myself, only revisiting it for information from rare pragmatic articles like “How Much is Too Much?” [n1].

Nowadays, many Therians consider their condition to be psychological and possibly neurobiological, rather than thinking of their condition in strictly spiritual terms. Many blood drinking “Vampires” are turning their eyes towards possible medical explanations for their conditions, disregarding the glamour of the vampire image and focusing on how to quietly and safely acquire what is for them, the only medication they know of to effectively treat perceived physical and psychological symptoms.

Had these pragmatic, non-theistic points of view been more prevalent seventeen years ago when I was exploring my identity or thirteen years ago when I was beginning to actively seek coping mechanisms and reasoning behind disturbing new feelings within myself, I may have found more support, access to safety advice, and possibly even the peace that can be found in the solidarity of a real community, albeit via connection with individuals over the internet. My psychological development, my mental stability at the time, the understanding of my donors, friends, and eventually of my family, would have benefited greatly from the existence of such an environment and source of practical resources. Myself as well as my donors would have been safer and my condition better understood by myself and more easily explained to others.

This is why I believe it is imperative that the point of view of “Medical Sanguinarians”, the blood drinkers who feel that ingesting blood is necessary to maintain their physical and psychological well-being and that the cause is rooted in the material world as a medical ailment, these people who believe that research into our condition to either confirm or eliminate physical abnormality as a possible reason for the things we experience and the symptoms we perceive is worth pursuing, must not be suppressed within the Online Vampire Community.

The goals of “Medical Sanguinarians” do not include the negation or devaluation of identities of metaphysically minded individuals who perceive their experiences as being similar to ours yet choose to interpret them differently. We simply are looking for answers through another venue. Whereas those who believe all vampirism is tied into metaphysics have already satisfied themselves with their own answers, for many Sanguinarians these answers do not satisfy, alternative feeding methods based on utilization of metaphysical energy manipulation have never satisfied, and while anyone is free to enjoy the mystique and aesthetics associated with vampire mythos, many in the “Medical Sanguinarian” sect would ideally be able to go to the pharmacy, pick up a prescription that alleviates our symptoms, and go back to our daily lives without the hassle and safety risks associated with the consumption and independent acquisition of healthy blood to ingest.

I thus beseech the community at large to, if not support, please do not go out of your way to suppress the existence of this newly vocal, though longstanding sector of the Online Vampire Community. With an emphasis on easier access to safety information, honest self analysis of symptoms, collection of biological data for analysis and a generally non-theistic approach to our perceived need for blood we may move forward towards an appeal for answers within the context of the medical community. If those answers are not found after considerable effort, and a psychological cause emerges to us as the most plausible reason for our symptoms, so be it. Personally I support consideration of both possible explanations simultaneously.

It is my understanding that there are a number among those who label themselves “Hybrids” (meaning a person who feeds on both energy and blood) who consider their practice of manipulating metaphysical energy to be unrelated to and non substitutable for their need to consume blood, effectively perceiving and often conflating two separate conditions (a metaphysical issue and a physical one). This type of person may benefit from the results worked for by the “Medical Sanguinarian” community. The belief that Sanguinarianism is a medical condition is unrelated to any belief in the supernatural or theistic value system.

Rather than validation of personal identities, I think as a whole the Med Sang community is simply seeking information and understanding, and hoping for revelations and new coping mechanisms. If a genetic test were developed to either confirm or deny a newly discovered medical condition, it would not invalidate the identity of anyone else, anymore than would not having Porphyria. There is no insidious agenda I’m aware of to create an upper echelon of people who have more right to use the “V” word than anyone else by virtue of being “more sick”.

I ask that our views be taken into consideration when writing about the “Vampire Community” as a whole, and especially when using the term “Sanguinarian” as it applies specifically to blood feeders. I ask for this consideration out of courtesy, and so that newcomers finding themselves in the position I once did may be made aware that different viewpoints on this matter DO exist and that there is support for those who do not subscribe to the theory that “Chi”, “Prana”, or “Life Force Energy” is behind the symptoms they find themselves faced with.

Thank you for your consideration,
~ Syrf

[n1] http://www.sanguinarius.org/support/blood-matters/blood-how-much-is-too-much/

” data-medium-file=”” data-large-file=”” class=”alignnone size-full wp-image-280″ src=”https://countessalexia.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/vacutainerplaintube.jpg” alt=”vacutainerplaintube”>Blood is drawn into vacutainers without additive.

The major disadvantage of using a no additive tube is that drawn blood will coagulate rapidly and the contents of the vial must be ingested quickly. The main advantage, however, is the peace of mind of getting additive-free blood, with no toxicity concerns or possible interactions or alteration of the blood by the chemicals.

Conclusions:

Safety: No additional risks beyond the expected risks associated with the ingestion of blood.

Sodium Heparin (Na Heparin)

I first came across the Online Vampire Community in 1999, while researching the Therian and Otherkin communities as a child. I was looking for explanations for the “trans-species” body dysmorphia that has been with me most of my life, and the two communities existed at the time and continue to exist in relative close proximity.

My reaction to a cursory evaluation of the “Real Vampire” website was a somewhat self conscious “Pfft…People who think they’re VAMPIRES? Come on, now.”….after which I continued reading theories about animal souls being misplaced and trapped in human bodies (yes, with a slightly uncomfortable feeling of hypocrisy).

My Therianthropy stayed with me, though, after initial research into theories. With the exception of occasional re-visitation for the reassurance that at least what I was feeling was not unique, I largely did not look back at the online Therian/Otherkin community. The offered explanations of spiritual causes did not resonate with my critical perspective. The claims of access to supernatural realms or possession of special powers or physical abilities beyond the norm they attributed to this “Other-species” condition bestowed upon me more self-doubt than they did comfort. I could not identify with a belief system that supported such claims which went against my own personal sense of logic and intuition which, from my perspective, devalued and discredited the community behind them.

Skip ahead to 2003. I’m sitting in my school’s computer lab feeding the google search bar with every variation of “Human+Blood+Drinking” I can fathom and I spend several hours sifting through anthropological articles describing ceremonies of isolated primitive tribes, medical papers describing safety risks of including blood in the human diet, cultural histories of blood drinking, mythologies, and articles about various hematophagous insects and other critters who’s prey included humans. These were the days only a scant few years before National Geographic started featuring human blood drinkers on shows like “Taboo”, and it was literally HOURS before my young mind finally thought to plug in the word

“Vampire”.

“Real+Living+Human+Vampire”. Bingo. Finding myself, somewhat ironically, right back at Drink Deeply and Dream, I finally started reading. I remember maintaining my incredulity, eyeing the dramatic format and writing style of the site with distrust, but at some point I wandered onto a description of a “craving” state, and it struck an all too familiar nerve. My memories of the next few months are fuzzy, except that I became very depressed, that this concept dominated my thoughts, my grades faltered, my interpersonal relationships suffered and that I locked myself in my room several times to curl up on the floor, worried I may hurt someone if I didn’t isolate myself. I think I tried researching it a few more times during that period but it usually ended up either frustrating or triggering me unpleasantly. I became despondent.

A few years later, I had my first human donor, and became aware of sites like Sanguinarius.org and Sphynxcat’s Real Vampire Support Page. The atmosphere among vampires active online at the time was such that when I did reach out for help I was told to “learn how to Psi feed”. I gave it a good go; truly I did. Despite the concept being at odds with my belief system, I was desperate for relief and attempted to visualize everything I was instructed to and to imbue these visualizations with as much faith and feeling as I could muster. Meanwhile, I kept my violent thoughts and impulses to myself, thinking them private and shameful. The dominating theory that the cause of my symptoms was energy deprivation and that the answer was to absorb metaphysical life force was the reason I abandoned the online vampire community as a possible source of answers and decided to try to figure things out myself, only revisiting it for information from rare pragmatic articles like “How Much is Too Much?” [n1].

Nowadays, many Therians consider their condition to be psychological and possibly neurobiological, rather than thinking of their condition in strictly spiritual terms. Many blood drinking “Vampires” are turning their eyes towards possible medical explanations for their conditions, disregarding the glamour of the vampire image and focusing on how to quietly and safely acquire what is for them, the only medication they know of to effectively treat perceived physical and psychological symptoms.

Had these pragmatic, non-theistic points of view been more prevalent seventeen years ago when I was exploring my identity or thirteen years ago when I was beginning to actively seek coping mechanisms and reasoning behind disturbing new feelings within myself, I may have found more support, access to safety advice, and possibly even the peace that can be found in the solidarity of a real community, albeit via connection with individuals over the internet. My psychological development, my mental stability at the time, the understanding of my donors, friends, and eventually of my family, would have benefited greatly from the existence of such an environment and source of practical resources. Myself as well as my donors would have been safer and my condition better understood by myself and more easily explained to others.

This is why I believe it is imperative that the point of view of “Medical Sanguinarians”, the blood drinkers who feel that ingesting blood is necessary to maintain their physical and psychological well-being and that the cause is rooted in the material world as a medical ailment, these people who believe that research into our condition to either confirm or eliminate physical abnormality as a possible reason for the things we experience and the symptoms we perceive is worth pursuing, must not be suppressed within the Online Vampire Community.

The goals of “Medical Sanguinarians” do not include the negation or devaluation of identities of metaphysically minded individuals who perceive their experiences as being similar to ours yet choose to interpret them differently. We simply are looking for answers through another venue. Whereas those who believe all vampirism is tied into metaphysics have already satisfied themselves with their own answers, for many Sanguinarians these answers do not satisfy, alternative feeding methods based on utilization of metaphysical energy manipulation have never satisfied, and while anyone is free to enjoy the mystique and aesthetics associated with vampire mythos, many in the “Medical Sanguinarian” sect would ideally be able to go to the pharmacy, pick up a prescription that alleviates our symptoms, and go back to our daily lives without the hassle and safety risks associated with the consumption and independent acquisition of healthy blood to ingest.

I thus beseech the community at large to, if not support, please do not go out of your way to suppress the existence of this newly vocal, though longstanding sector of the Online Vampire Community. With an emphasis on easier access to safety information, honest self analysis of symptoms, collection of biological data for analysis and a generally non-theistic approach to our perceived need for blood we may move forward towards an appeal for answers within the context of the medical community. If those answers are not found after considerable effort, and a psychological cause emerges to us as the most plausible reason for our symptoms, so be it. Personally I support consideration of both possible explanations simultaneously.

It is my understanding that there are a number among those who label themselves “Hybrids” (meaning a person who feeds on both energy and blood) who consider their practice of manipulating metaphysical energy to be unrelated to and non substitutable for their need to consume blood, effectively perceiving and often conflating two separate conditions (a metaphysical issue and a physical one). This type of person may benefit from the results worked for by the “Medical Sanguinarian” community. The belief that Sanguinarianism is a medical condition is unrelated to any belief in the supernatural or theistic value system.

Rather than validation of personal identities, I think as a whole the Med Sang community is simply seeking information and understanding, and hoping for revelations and new coping mechanisms. If a genetic test were developed to either confirm or deny a newly discovered medical condition, it would not invalidate the identity of anyone else, anymore than would not having Porphyria. There is no insidious agenda I’m aware of to create an upper echelon of people who have more right to use the “V” word than anyone else by virtue of being “more sick”.

I ask that our views be taken into consideration when writing about the “Vampire Community” as a whole, and especially when using the term “Sanguinarian” as it applies specifically to blood feeders. I ask for this consideration out of courtesy, and so that newcomers finding themselves in the position I once did may be made aware that different viewpoints on this matter DO exist and that there is support for those who do not subscribe to the theory that “Chi”, “Prana”, or “Life Force Energy” is behind the symptoms they find themselves faced with.

Thank you for your consideration,
~ Syrf

[n1] http://www.sanguinarius.org/support/blood-matters/blood-how-much-is-too-much/

” data-medium-file=”” data-large-file=”” class=”size-medium wp-image-281 alignnone” src=”https://countessalexia.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/sodiumheparintube.jpg?w=300″ alt=”sodiumheparintube” width=”300″ height=”300″>Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. It is also used to form an inner anticoagulant surface on various experimental and medical devices such as test tubes and renal dialysis machines.

Heparin acts as an anticoagulant, preventing the formation of clots and extension of existing clots within the blood, preventing venous thromboembolism. It is also increasingly recognized that heparin has many other pharmacological properties including but not limited to antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastatic actions. (Mulloy et al, 2016)

However, heparin must be given parenterally (administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract) for it to be effective for thinning the blood within the body. When given orally, the body digests it before it can be made of any use. This is why a lot of research has gone toward finding ways to administer heparin orally with the help of specialised, carrier molecules. (Arbit et al, 2006)

Conclusions:

Safety: No known toxicity, inactivated by digestion, generally safe.

Word of caution: Pharmaceutical-grade heparin is derived from mucosal tissues of slaughtered meat animals such as porcine (pig) intestines or bovine (cattle) lungs. There have been recalls of commonly used injectable heparin due to risks of bacterial contamination. It is not known if the risks are lower or higher with spray coated heparin in collection tubes.

Note:

Vacutainers containing any additive mentioned here must be gently inverted (turned upside down) 8-10 times to ensure that the additive with be properly mixed into the blood. [n1.3]

Blood preserved with heparin tends to separate [n1.5]. when left static and will eventually start to form clots after 4/5 days.

Sodium Citrate (Trisodium citrate)

sodiumcitrate

Sodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. Its E number (a code for food additives) is E331. Sodium citrate is employed as a tart flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda and commercial ready to drink beverages and drink mixes. Sodium citrate is common as an ingredient in bratwurst, ice-cream, jams, sweets, milk powder, processed cheeses, carbonated beverages, and wine.

In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used sodium citrate as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions. It continues to be used today in blood collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood by forming calcium citrate complexes, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism.

Toxicology of Sodium Citrate

http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/68-04-2

Conclusions:

Safety: Generally safe. Sometimes used to preserve animal blood for cooking. Contraindication for people with impaired renal function.

Note: Sodium Citrate does add a tart, slightly salty flavor to the blood and for this reason, may be less preferable to the person ingesting the blood than tasteless additives.

Sodium Citrate vacutainers must be inverted 3-4 times, gently (Vigorous mixing or shaking of a specimen may cause hemolysis, which means rupture or laceration of the cell walls. There is some indication that preservation of intact red cells is relevant for our purpose, though there is no conclusive evidence I’m aware of to support this).

 

EDTA

BD Vacutainer® K2 EDTA Blood Collection Tube

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, widely abbreviated as EDTA is a chelating agent (a substance whose molecules can form several bonds to a single metal ion) that is widely used  by various industries. Various forms of EDTA are used as ingredients in cosmetics, pesticides, household disinfectants, laundry detergent, eye drops and are frequently added to food as a preservative. In laboratories, EDTA is used extensively in the analysis of blood as an anticoagulant for blood samples for CBC/FBEs.

An important use of EDTA is in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning (lead and mercury) and in the treatment of excess iron in the blood. Injected intravenously, once in the bloodstream EDTA traps lead and other metals forming a compound that the body can eliminate in the urine.

(EDTA dipotassium salt dihydrate & EDTA Tripotassium Salt)

K2 EDTA is available in a spray-dried form, which does not introduce dilutional effects on small sample volumes. It is associated with a less pronounced osmotic effect on blood cells than K3 EDTA, but it appears to be associated with more complaints regarding blood clotting. In fact, as K2 EDTA is dispensed as a powder on the inside walls of the vial, primary tubes containing this additive may need to be properly mixed to allow a complete miscibility between the blood and the anticoagulant.

Studies published by the The International Council for Standardization in Haematology and NCCLS show morphological alterations to the blood cells are more pronounced when K3-EDTA is used than K2-EDTA [n3]. We may want to take this into consideration.  Basically, K3-EDTA osmotically shrinks the red cells, and being liquid rather than a salt spray, dilutes the sample. Further dilution expands the red cells to normal size during medical analysis which is why the effect is often considered negligible, but seeing as we’re skipping the laboratory analysis and guzzling it instead, I’d go with Dipotassium EDTA.

While the CLSI US Standard for Venous Blood Collection declines to differentiate between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA as separate options for use as an anticoagulant [n2], the International Council for Standardization in Hematology currently recommends K2 EDTA as the anticoagulant of choice for hematological testing. This indication has been widely acknowledged in Europe and Japan, whereas K3 EDTA is still frequently used in the United States and the United Kingdom.

By binding to the calcium in blood, EDTA effectively prevents the coagulation cascade and irreversibly prevents blood clotting so it will always remain in a fluid state.

The anticoagulant of choice in routine haematology https://www.researchgate.net/publication/21362193_K2 HYPERLINK 

Safety Data Sheet for K3EDTA

*Note: K2-EDTA light and heat sensitive. [n2.5]

Some proponents of alternative medicine claim that EDTA, particularly calcium Disodium EDTA, when taken orally acts as an antioxidant and helps fight cardiovascular diseases and improves blood flow. However, these ideas not yet conclusive, and seem to contradict some currently accepted principles. The proposed health benefits of oral chelations therapies have not been proven to be effective (Green 2009).

An example of a product sold as an oral chelation therapy consisting of a “Proprietary blend of 3 types of Sodium based EDTA, which are all food-grade amino acids” is [n4]. Their pills are sold in 450 mg doses, with the recommended daily dose for the first two weeks being 2.7 grams per day. Meanwhile WebMD states that “It is UNSAFE to use more than 3 grams of EDTA per day, or to take it longer than 5 to 7 days. Too much can cause kidney damage, dangerously low calcium levels, and death.” [n5] For comparison, a standard EDTA vacutainer will contain up to 10 milligrams of k3EDTA. One would have to consume 300 vials in one day to consume 3 grams of EDTA.

Safety:

This report:  http://gov.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/FR285.pdf  is a mine of information on EDTA toxicity, both oral, intravenous and cutaneous. It summarizes pretty much all of the human and animal studies performed on the toxicity of EDTA for the past 20 years. Here are the most relevant points for the purposes of consumption.

Continued use of oral EDTA has been shown to result in a loss of necessary trace metals, such a zinc and calcium, which can lead to complications and heart disease. The CIR Expert Panel recognized that oral exposures to EDTA produced reproductive/ developmental toxicity in test animals. Demineralization of teeth was also observed.

It is important to note that we are not aware of any studies having been conducted regarding on the effects of oral ingestion of K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA. There are important differences in the way the human body metabolizes EDTA in it’s various forms and without further knowledge we cannot at this time predict the health consequences of using this anticoagulant for blood preservation for the purpose of ingestion other than to use previous studies as a guide.[n6]

Conclusions:

Oral use of EDTA in humans has never been studied in a large group of people and over a long enough period of time to determine the safe dose and the extent of resulting trace element deficiencies. The information available on oral toxicity of EDTA on animals is sometimes conflicting. The long-term toxicity of EDTA is complicated by its ability to chelate essential and toxic metals, both in water and in animals. Toxicity data are therefore equivocal and difficult to interpret.

There is no sufficient evidence to say that EDTA consumed regularly is entirely safe.  There are serious concerns that its continued use might create deficiencies in trace metals such a zinc and calcium; damage teeth by means of demineralization and damage different tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. While the quantities present in vacutainers might not be enough to cause  toxicological effects, caution should be advised. I would definitely not recommend the use of EDTA for Sanguinarians who need frequent and heavy feedings.

K2-EDTA is considered hazardous by the 2012 OSHA Hazard Communication Standard [n6.5]

Citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA-1)

cpdabag

Additive most often found in blood collection bags.

An anticoagulant solution, containing citric acid, sodium citrate, monobasic sodium phosphate, dextrose, and adenine, used for the preservation of whole blood and red blood cells for up to 35 days; it extends red cell survival by providing adenine needed for the maintenance of red cell ATP.

(http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CPDA-1)

Conclusions:

Safety: Thought safe to drink.

note:

CPDA-1 has a very long shelf life but I find it to have a strong, nearly cloying taste.

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[n1] Any blood drawing should only be done by someone who is trained to do so or risk injury to the donor. Any individual choosing to draw blood and consume it does so at their own discretion, responsibility, and risk.

[n1.3] Regarding invertion of vacutainers for activation of anticoalgulents:

http://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_Jan2004_VS7167.pdf

[n1.5]  A visual guide to blood seperation:

http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-components

[n2] A discussion on how to prepare EDTA as anticoagulant for human blood collection :

https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_to_prepare_EDTA_as_anticoagulant_for_human_blood_collection

[n2.5] Details regarding preffered storage methods of EDTA including sensativity to heat and sunlight:  https://www.fishersci.com/shop/msdsproxy?storeId=10652&productName=AC409965000&productDescription=

[n3] https://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_May2002_VS5998.pdf

http://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_Jan2009_VS8014.pdf.

[n3.5] CLSI US Standard for Venous Blood Collection:

https://www.sarstedt.com/fileadmin/user_upload/99_Literatur/US/619_EDTA_Antikoagulantien_US.pdf

[n4] An example of a webite selling oral chelation pills found here: http://cardiorenewcanada.ca/6weekfoundationprogram.php

[n5] Article noting an decrease in clotting time associated with K2-EDTA when compared to K3-EDTA: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/568506_4

[n6] An article discussing the differences in various forms of EDTA as they pertain to oral chelation therapy: http://www.smart-publications.com/articles/the-business-of-chelation-and-why-EDTA-oral-chelation-is-best

[n6.5] K2-EDTA- OSHA Hazard Communication Standard:

https://www.fishersci.com/shop/msdsproxy?storeId=10652&productName=AC409965000&productDescription=

[n7] WebMD’s health warnings regarding EDTA: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1032-edta.aspx?activeingredientid=1032&

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Mulloy, B., J Hogwood, E Gray, R Lever, CP Page. “Pharmacology of Heparin and Related Drugs.” Pharmacology Review. 2016 Jan;68(1):76-141

Ehud Arbit,  Michael Goldberg, Isabel Gomez-Orellana, and Shingai Majuru.Thromb J, 2006. “Oral heparin: status review” Thrombosis Journal. 10 May 2006, 4:6 

Arzoumanian, Lena. “Tech Talk.” BD. Retrived February 2, 2016 <https://www.bd.com/vacutainer/pdfs/techtalk/TechTalk_May2002_VS5998.pdf>

Brown, M. J.; Willis, T.; Omalu, B.; Leiker, R. (2006). “Deaths Resulting from Hypocalcemia After Administration of Edetate Disodium: 2003-2005”. Pediatrics 118 (2): e534.

Green, Saul; Wallace Sampson. December 14, 2002. “EDTA Chelation Therapy for Atherosclerosis And Degenerative Diseases: Implausibility and Paradoxical Oxidant Effects”. Quackwatch. Retrieved 16 December 2009. <http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/chelationimp.html>

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