The Ultimate Vampyre Timeline Rev: 14

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    Tim Bey-Sahjaza
    Tim Bey-Sahjaza

    Good evening,
    If I may,

    It has always been one of my firmest beliefs that in order to fully understand something one has to take into account the entire history that gave rise to that thing. Science, medicine, art, literature… you name it, any venture that a person can involve themselves in has history behind it, history that shapes, defines, that leads to the expression of new forms within that discipline. It is, with this in mind, that I first created, and now maintain and update bi-annually, this resource.

    Currently at Rev:14 I am now scouting, receiving and accepting materials for inclusion in Rev: 15.
    I offer it here for reference and for education.
    T. Bey-Sahjaza

    Sometime in 2010 I went looking for a “comprehensive” and COMPLETE vampyre history timeline. What I found was that there were many and of that number many were simply “copy & paste” versions of each other. Some had a little extra thrown in. Most stopped with the history at around the turn of the twentieth century and then diverted into popular fiction lists and entertainment. Some just stopped dead. There were very, very few that represented much ‘History’ after Bram Stoker’s Dracula or some of the early twentieth century so called ‘vampire’ crimes.

    I decided that we deserved something more and so I set about compiling and maintaining this, initially for myself but then for the use of anyone in the culture that wanted to find out about “us”.

    One thing I want to make very clear from the start, I CLAIM NO COPYRIGHT IN THIS MATERIAL. I am simply a chronicler, I compiled this from dozens, if not tens of dozens, of sources both electronic and written. Commentators from the Proto-Russian “Book of Prophecy” (ca. 1047 AD) through the twelfth century British chronicler, William of Newburgh, the works of Map, Sinistrari and Rohr to the seminal works of Summers, Fortune, Riccardo and Melton, this compilation is intended to be a digest of known, and as near as I have been able to ascertain, reliable references to the Vampire throughout history.
    Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

    I, and Lady Marmoon, keep an alert open for “creditable” instances of historical significance to the community and I accept suggestions from anyone as to things that, in their opinion, constitute vampyric history. I take those suggestions, I read and research for corroborating information and I cross-reference everything before I put it in the timeline. I have only included specific and selected instances of literary history and technological influence where such can be clearly demonstrated to have materially contributed to the development and growth of the vampire mythos and real life sub-culture.
    It’s been, and remains, a labour of love, I hope it is useful to you, dear reader.

    The Ultimate Vampyre Timeline

    In Cuneiform writings in Sumeria Lilith appears as one of a group of Sumerian vampire/cannibal demons that included Lillu, Ardat Lili and Irdu Lili

    Old Babylonian Empire. Lilith appears in the Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic as a vampiric harlot who was unable to bear children. She was commonly depicted as a young girl with owl’s feet.

    1700-1100 BC
    Hindu sacred writings, The Rig Veda, describe Vampiric creatures of supernatural origin

    200 AD
    Lilith is referred to in the Talmud (the collection of Jewish law and tradition consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara) where she was held to be the first wife of Adam

    The first mention of the word “vampir” was discovered in a Slavic document that was Russian in origin. The Book of Prophecy written in 1047 AD for Vladimir Jaroslav, Prince of Novgorod, in north-western Russia. The text was written in what is generally referred to as proto-Russian, a form of the language that had evolved from the older, common Slavonic language but which had not yet become the distinctive Russian language of the modern era. The text gave a priest the most unsavoury title; Upir Lichy, which literally translated means wicked vampire or extortionate vampire.

    The age of origins of universities in the West; The term “Kindred” appears. A term meaning “of having the same belief or attitude”. It originated in 1125-75AD; Mid-European, a variation (with epenthetic d) of kinrede.

    William of Newburgh born. A twelfth century British chronicler of vampyre incidents, was born in Bridlington. As a youth he moved to a priory of Augustinian Canons at Newburgh, Yorkshire. He became a Canon and remained at Newburgh for the rest of his life. Urged to devote himself to scholarly pursuits by his superiors he emerged as a precursor of modern historical criticism and strongly denounced the inclusion of obvious myth in historical treatises. His magnum opus, the Historia Rerum Anglicarum, also known as The Chronicles was completed near the end of his life. Chapters 32 to 34 relate to a number of stories of contemporary revenants, which William had collected during his adult years. Accounts such as that of Alnwick and Melrose Abbey have been repeatedly cited as evidence of a vampyre lore existing in the British Isles in ancient times. William died at Newburgh some time between 1198 and 1208

    Walter Map’s De Nagis Curialium includes accounts of vampire-like beings in England.
    The “Black Death” plague sweeps the world. It was, at the time, thought by many to be of ‘Vampyric’ origin.

    July – A woman named Priba from the village of Odhus on the island of Pašman near Zadar, was suspected of being a vampire. The villagers received permission from the Mayor of Zadar, Mayor of Zadar Pavao Pavlović, to exhume the corpse and drive a stake through her heart. They tried to do so with a Hawthorn stake, but couldn’t pierce the body, so they ended up beheading the corpse. In this case she was not described using the word Vampire but rather the term Vukodlak. (Ref: Vjekoslav Klaić (1849 – 1928) that appeared on page 233 of “Zbornik za narodni život”, knjiga I.) []

    Vlad Dracula (i.e. Son of Dracul) also known as Vlad the Impaler, was a historical figure upon whom Bram Stoker had partially based his famous vampyre character. The name “Dracula” was applied to Vlad during his lifetime. It was derived from “Dracul” a Romanian word that can be interpreted either as “devil” or “dragon”. Thus “Dracula” would seem to have significance as meaning “son of the dragon” or “son of the devil”. He was born in Sighisoara (then Schassburg), a town in Transylvania

    Vlad Dracula first attempts to claim the Wallachian throne.

    Vlad Dracula then began his six year reign as ruler of Wallachia, during which his reputation was established.

    Most probably, in the spring of 1459, Vlad committed his first major act of revenge upon those he considered responsible for the death of his father and older brother. On Easter Sunday, after a day of feasting, he arrested the Boyar families. The older members he simply had impaled outside the palace and city walls. He forced the rest to march from Tirgoviste to the town of Poenari where, over the summer, they were forced to build his new outpost overlooking the Arges River. It was this chateau that was to become identified later as Castle Dracula. Vlad Dracul’s manner of terrorizing his enemies and the seemingly arbitrary manner in which he had people punished, earned him the nickname “Tepes” or “The Impaler”.

    1476 -1477
    Vlad’s death came at the hands of an assassin at some point towards the end of December 1476 or early the following year.

    Elizabeth (Erszebet) Bathory born

    Elizabeth Bathory marries Count Ferenc Nadasdy

    Clara Geisslerin ( was a 69-year-old widow in the town of Gelnhausen, Germany. Accused of witchcraft amongst other charges which included grave-robbing, murder, and consorting with demons. Under torture (by thumbscrews and the rack), she confessed to sexual relations with demons in the form of animals and to drinking the blood of sixty children that she had killed. She also named twenty other women who she said were guilty.
    However, Geisslerin recanted her confession when the torture was stopped. Local authorities, fearing for her soul, resumed the torture a second time. Geisslerin again confessed, adding that she had conceived many children with the demons and had killed them all. She recanted once more as soon as she was taken off the rack, and told her accusers that God would be their judge. The other twenty suspects had been questioned and implicated Geisslerin by then, so the old woman was tortured a third time. A confession was once again elicited, but Geisslerin could not recant this time because she died under the pressure. The judges in the case attributed her death to the devil, who did not want Geisslerin to disclose any further details.

    Elizabeth Bathory arrested December 29th

    Elizabeth Bathory sent to trial and convicted of 650 offences. Sentenced to life in prison. In evidence given at her trial it was revealed she often “bit” her victims whilst torturing them. However, there was no direct testimony that she drained her victim’s blood to bathe in.

    Elizabeth Bathory dies in confinement.

    Ludovici Maria Sinistrari born in Pavia, Italy. (Died 1701) A Franciscan, Sinistrari included the matter of vampirism in a study of demonic phenomena entitled De Daemonialitate, et Incubis, et Succubis. He offered a theological interpretation of them that stood far from the contemporary rationalism and enlightenment that emerged in the following century. He considered vampyres as creatures that had not originated with the accepted Christian creationist theories. He surmised that while they, the vampyres, had a rational soul equal to humans their corporeal dimension was of a completely different and perfect nature. In saying this he enforced the idea that vampyres were creatures that paralleled human beings rather than being opposite, chthonious, underground beings.

    Leo Allatius (1586 – 1669) A Roman Catholic theologian and scholar, authors the first work that treats the subject of vampyres seriously. In his De Graecorum bodie quirundam opinationibus the vampyre to which he primarily referred was the Greek Vrykolakas. At this time the vampyre was connected with the devil of Christianity both in nature and existence.
    Jure Grando, an Istrian (Croatian) peasant who lived in Kringa, a small place in the interior of the Istrian peninsula, dies. His remains would be disinterred and decapitated as a vampire in 1672.

    Francoise Richard’s “Relation de ce qui s’est passé a Sant-Erini Isle de l’Archipel” links vampirism and witchcraft.

    Giuseppe Davanzati-Alessandra; whom would go on to become an Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church, and vampirologist, is born.

    Dom Antoine Augustin Calmet born 26 Feb. He would go on to become a renowned Roman Catholic biblical scholar, and the most famous vampirologist of the eighteenth century.

    Jure Grando’s body is disinterred and decapitated as a vampire. A party of nine people went to the graveyard, carrying a cross, lamps and a hawthorn stick. They dug up his coffin, and found a perfectly preserved corpse with a smile on its face. They tried to pierce its heart again, but the stick could not penetrate its flesh. After some exorcism prayers one of them, Stipan Milašić, took a saw and sawed the corpse’s head off. As soon as the saw tore his skin, the vampire reportedly screamed and blood started to flow until soon the whole grave was full of blood.

    Phillip Rohr’s “Dissertatio Historico-Philosophica de Masticatione Mortuorum” appears. Rohr was based in the Holy Roman Empire, and his text discussed the common folklore that some corpses returned to life, eating both their funeral shrouds and nearby bodies – a process known as manduction. The chewing dead were part of a larger body of vampire mythology, which Rohr’s text contributed to significantly.

    The case of Arnold Paole (Paule), Paole, after serving in the military, returned to his home village where he took up farming but was killed in an accident and was buried immediately. Some three weeks later reports surfaced of appearances by Paul. Four people whom made reports died and panic began to spread through the community. The town leaders decided to act quickly to quell the panic and had the body of Paul disinterred to determine whether he was a vampyre.
    On the fortieth day after his burial, with two military surgeons present, the coffin was exhumed and opened. Inside they found a body that appeared as if it had just recently died. What appeared to be new skin was present under a layer of dead skin and the nails had continued to grow. Upon being pierced the body poured blood from the wound. Those present judged Paul to be a vampyre and the corpse was staked; reportedly uttering a loud groan at this, then the corpse’s head was severed and the body burned. The four other people whom had died after making reports of Paul’s appearances were treated similarly.

    Peter Plogojowitz dies (some sources place the death in 1725) in a village named Kisilova in Austrian occupied Serbia, not far from the site of the Paole case. Three days later, in the middle of the night, he entered his house and asked his son for food. He ate and then left. Two evenings later he reappeared and again asked for food. His son refused and was found dead the following day. Shortly after this several villagers fell ill from exhaustion which was diagnosed as caused by an excessive loss of blood. They reported that, in a dream, they had been visited by Plogojowitz who had bitten them on the neck and sucked blood from them. Nine persons succumbed to this mysterious illness during the following week and died.
    The inhabitants of Kisilova demanded that Kameralprovisor Frombald, along with the local priest Veliko Gradište should be present at the procedure as a representatives of the Austrian administration. Frombald tried to convince them that permission from the Austrian authorities in Belgrade should be sought first but the locals feared that by the time the permission came, the whole community could be exterminated by the vampire, which they claimed had already happened “in Turkish times” (i.e. when the village was still in the Ottoman-controlled part of Serbia). They demanded that Frombald himself should immediately permit the procedure or else they would abandon the village to save their lives. Frombald was, therefore, forced to consent.
    The graves of all the recently deceased were opened. The body of Plogojowitz himself was an enigma to them – he appeared to be in a trance-like state and was breathing very gently. His eyes were open, his flesh plump and he exhibited a ruddy complexion. His hair and nails appeared to have grown and fresh skin was discovered just below the scarfskin. Most importantly, his mouth was smeared with fresh blood. It was quickly concluded that he was indeed a vampire and the investigators drove a stake through the body. Reportedly, blood gushed from the wound and the orifices of the body which was removed and burned. None of the other exhumed corpses showed signs of the same condition so, to protect both them and the villagers, garlic and whitethorn were placed in their graves and their remains returned to the ground.

    In the same area, 17 people died in the space of three months, of symptoms believed to be those of vampirism. The townspeople were, at first, slow to react until one girl complained of being attacked by a man recently deceased named Milo. Word of this second “wave” of vampirism reached Vienna and the Austrian Emperor ordered an inquiry be conducted by the Regimental Field Surgeon Johannes Fluckinger. Appointed on December 12th, Fluckinger headed for the town of Medvegia and began to gather accounts of what had occurred. Milo’s body was exhumed and found to be in the same state as that of Paul had been found. Accordingly the body was staked and burned. It was determined that Paul, in 1727, had vampyrised several cows that the dead Milo had recently dined on. Under Fluckinger’s orders the townspeople then proceeded to exhume the bodies of all whom had died in recent months. In all 43 corpses were exhumed and 17 found to be in a “vampiric” state; all were staked and burned.

    Davanzati publishes his “Dissertazione sopra I Vampiri” following several years study of vampire activity reports in various parts of Germany and other pertinent texts. Davanzati concluded that vampyre reports were human fantasies though acceded they may have had diabolical origin.

    Calmet’s only published work on vampires appears; “Dissertations sur les Apparitions des Anges des Démons et des Espits, et sur les revenants, et Vampires de Hingrie, de Boheme, de Moravie et de Silésie.”

    Upon receiving the report of her investigator, and Court Physician, Gerhard van Swieten, whom she had despatched to Silesia in the wake of reports of a woman recently deceased, Rosalina Polakin, being suspected of being a vampire, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria banned all anti-vampire activities, disinterment and such things, throughout the empire. This seemed to effectively quell the “vampire hysteria” of the times.

    Giuseppe Davanzati dies sometime during this period.

    Reports of sheep being killed by having their jugular veins cut and their blood drained circulate throughout northern England.

    The poem “The Giaour”, completed and published. In this poem Byron demonstrated his familiarity with the Greek vampiric being the Vrykolakas

    Henry Steel Olcott, American religious leader and author, cofounder of Theosophist movement, b. Orange, N.J.

    Abraham “Bram” Stoker, (died 1912) born in Dublin, Ireland – Stoker was the author of Dracula, the key work in the development of the modern literary vampyre myth.

    Vincenzo Verzeni, born in Bettanuco, Bergamasco region. In 1874 a court found him guilty of two murders; involving the “biting and sucking of the blood of his victims” and of the attempted murder of four more women.

    Nicholas I occupies the Danubian provinces of Turkey. Baron von Haxthausen reports on the case of the DAKHANAVAR – Mythology; Armenia. A vampire whom protected the hills and valleys around Mount Ararat in the Caucasians. The case of vampirism in the Ray family of Jewett, Connecticut, is published in local newspapers.

    France. Z.J. Piérart a psychical researcher on vampirism and professor at the College of Maubeuge, founds a spiritualist journal, La Revue Spiritualiste. His rejection of popular reincarnation theory led him directly to his consideration of vampirism. He became interested in the possibility of psychic attack and in a series of articles he proposed a theory of psychic vampirism, suggesting that vampyres were the astral bodies of either incarcerated or deceased individuals that were revitalizing themselves on the living. He first proposed the idea that the astral body was forcefully ejected from the body of a person buried alive and that it vampyrised the living to nourish the body in the grave or tomb. Piérart’s work pioneered modern psychical concern with the phenomena of vampirism. It opened the door to the discussion and consideration of the possibility of a paranormal draining of an individual by a spiritual agent.

    British Occult Society founded to investigate paranormal and occult matters.

    Sir Richard F. Burton, whom published the English translation of the story collection The Vetala-Pachisi (published under the title Vikram and The Vampire) in 1870 noted of one particular passage that Kali, “Not being able to find victims, this pleasant deity, to satisfy her thirst for the curious juice, cut her own throat that the blood might spout up into her mouth.”Neustatt-an-der-Rheda (known today as Wejherowo) in Pomerania (north-west Poland) a prominent citizen named Franz von Poblocki died of tuberculosis. Two weeks later his son, Anton, also died and other relatives became ill and complained of nightmares. The surviving family members suspected vampirism and hired a local “vampyre expert” Johann Dzigielski to assist them. He decapitated the son whom was then buried with his head between his legs. Over the objections of the local priest the body of von Poblocki was exhumed and treated in a like manner. The local priest made a complaint to the authorities whom arrested Dzigielski. He was tried and sentenced to four months jail. He was released only after the family of the deceased appealed on his behalf and found the case heard by an understanding judge.

    Reports from Ceven, Ireland, tell of sheep having their throats cut and their blood drained.

    Henry Olcott and Helena Blavatsky found the Theosophical Society in New York City. Olcott speculated that occasionally when a person was buried they may not be dead but in a catatonic or trance-like state, barely alive. Olcott surmised that a person could survive for long periods in their grave by sending out their astral double to drain the blood, or “life force” from the living to remain nourished.

    Alphonsus Joseph-Mary Augustus Montague Summers born. Summers was the author of a number of important books on the supernatural including several classic studies on vampyres.

    One “vampire” case that draws attention is that of “The Blood Drawing Ghost” of County Cork, Ireland. Recounted by Jeremiah Curtin

    Dion Fortune (Violet Mary Firth) born in Wales in 1890

    Alleged “Rhode Island” vampire Mercy Brown dies age 19. Her death followed those of her mother and older sister. At the time, her brother, Edwin, was seriously ill and the family was desperate to save him. Family members attributed the deaths to a curse on the family and decided to dig up the bodies of the women, including Mercy, who had been buried for about a month. When Mercy’s body was exhumed, observers noted it appeared to have moved inside the coffin and blood was present in her heart and veins. Fearing she was a vampire, townspeople removed her heart and burned it on a rock before reburying her. The family dissolved the ashes in medicine and gave it to Edwin, who died two months later.

    Fritz Harmaann of Hanover, Germany, is arrested, tried and convicted of killing more than 20 people in a vampiric crime spree.

    Montague Summers’ “The History of Witchcraft and Demonology” appears

    Montague Summers finishes his broad survey, “The Vampire: His Kith and Kin”, in which he traced the presence of vampyres and vampyre-like creatures in the folklore around the world, from ancient times to the present. He also surveyed the rise of the literary and dramatic vampyre.

    Montague Summers publishes his equally valuable The Vampire in Europe, which focused on various

    Dion Fortune publishes one of her more popular books, Psychic Self Defence. This book came from her own experiences. In her occult work Fortune had also witnessed various instances of psychic attack which she was called on to interrupt. Among the elements of a psychic attack, she noted, was “vampirism” that left the victim in a state of nervous exhaustion, and a wasting state. From this Fortune propounded an occult perspective on vampirism. She suggested that masters of the occult had the ability to separate their psychic self from their physical body and attach themselves to others and drain the host’s energy. Such persons would then begin to, unconsciously, drain the energy from those around them.

    Peter Kurten of Dusseldorf, Germany is executed after being found guilty of murdering a number of people in a vampiric killing spree.

    Dion Fortune dies.

    In England, John George Haigh, the infamous “Acid Bath Murderer,” is hanged. He was also known as the “Vampire of London.” Haigh, claimed to have drunk the blood of his victims before destroying their bodies in a vat of sulfuric acid.

    The Count Dracula Society is founded in the United States by Donald Reed. Donald Reed was the founder and permanent president of the society, later coming to greater prominence as the leader of the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films, best known for its Saturn Awards. Beyond this he was a serious scholar, lifelong Catholic, and Liberal Democrat.

    Jeanne K. Youngson founds The Count Dracula Fan Club.

    Anne de Molay purchases a building in Philadelphia and founds the first incarnation of the Order of Maidenfear. After investigating the archetype of the vampire Anne arrived at the conclusion that vampirism was a very real interaction with life energy that could benefit the practitioner. This makes the premises, arguably, the first Vampire “House” in the United States.

    The Vampire Research Society founded as a specialist unit within the much older British Occult Society. (Seán Manchester was responsible for the vampire research unit becoming a self-governing body on 2 February 1970.)
    Also in 1967, Manchester, receives an account from a schoolgirl named Elizabeth Wojdyla and a friend of hers, whom claimed to have seen several graves opening in Highgate Cemetery, London; and the occupants rising from them. Elizabeth also reported having nightmares in which “something evil” tried to come into her bedroom.

    Creation of ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet.
    Also in 1969, Elizabeth Wojdyla’s nightmares returned but now the malevolent figure actually entered her bedroom. She had reportedly developed the symptoms of pernicious anaemia and her neck displayed two small wounds suggestive of the classical vampyre bite. Manchester, and her boyfriend, treated her as a victim of vampirism and filled her room with garlic, crucifixes and holy water; her condition and symptoms were reported to soon improve.

    On the Summer Solstice of 1970 the Order of Maidenfear declares its formal union and establishes, officially, House Maidenfear. It was the culmination of four years’ work beginning with Anne de Molay in 1966.
    Before an assembled crowd of onlookers, Manchester and two companions entered a vault at Highgate where three empty coffins were found. They sprinkled the vaults with salt and holy water, lined the coffins with garlic and placed a crucifix in each.
    In the summer (Northern) of 1970, David Farrant, another amateur vampyre hunter entered the field. He claimed to have seen the Highgate vampyre and went hunting it with a stake and crucifix but was arrested.
    In August the body of a young woman was found at the cemetery. It appeared as though the woman had been treated as a vampyre by decapitating and attempting to burn the corpse. Before the end of the month, police arrested two men whom claimed to be vampyre hunters.

    Also in 1970, Stephan Kaplan founds The Vampire Research Centre.

    True Vampires of History by Donald Glut is the first attempt to assemble the stories of all the historical vampire figures.

    Dracula Society; The – Founded by Bernard Davies and Bruce Wightman in U.K.

    The Order of The Vampyre was founded in 1975 by priests of the Church of Satan (founded in 1966) whom had decided to carry forward the serious work of the Church in a more historic, less anti-Christian context. The Temple of Set is configured as an “umbrella” organization that has a number of specialized “orders” whose members concentrate on specific areas of research and black magic applications of the results of that research.

    June 3, 1976
    Goddess Rosemary founds the Black Rose Coven in New York City.

    Martin V. Riccardo founds the Vampire Studies Society.
    Sean Manchester begins an investigation of a mansion near Highgate Cemetery that had a reputation as being haunted. On several occasions Manchester and his associates entered the house. In the basement they allege to have found a coffin, which they dragged into the backyard. Opening the casket Manchester reportedly saw the same “vampire” he had seen seven years before in Highgate Cemetery. This time, it was reported, he performed an exorcism by staking the body which “turned into a slimy, foul smelling substance, and burned the coffin”.
    Also in this year Richard Chase, dubbed “The Vampire Killer of Sacramento” commits the first of a series of murders. (The second murder in 1978 involved consuming the victim’s blood.)

    Eric Held and Dorothy Nixon found the Vampire Information Exchange.

    Further reports of dead animals found drained of blood from an area called Finchley. Manchester believed that a vampyre created by the bite of the Highgate Vampyre was the cause.

    The first vampire RPG, “Ravenloft”, was released as a “Dungeons and Dragons” module featuring the vampire Count Strahd von Zarovich.

    David Dolphin presented a paper to the American Association for the Advancement of Science outlining a theory that porphyria might underlie the reports of vampirism. He argued that since the treatment for porphyria was the injection of heme, it was possible that in the past people suffering porphyria might have attempted to drink blood as a method of relieving their symptoms.
    Among those whom critiqued Dolphin’s hypothesis was Paul Barber. Firstly, Barber noted, there was no evidence to show that the consumption of blood had any effect on the disease itself and only held up as long as one did not look at the available data too closely and discounted the powers of observation of those making the reports. Such reports which did not support the theory that any of those reported exhibited the symptoms of Porphyria.
    Also in 1985, the founding members of the Black Rose Coven, under the guidance of Goddess Rosemary form the Z/n Society.

    The retail outlet “Siren” is founded by Grovella Blak. Located in Toronto, Canada it is the world’s oldest establishment catering to the enthusiasms of the overlapping communities devoted to the Goth and Vampyre genres. The British Occult Society is formally disbanded by President Sean Manchester.

    The secretive; international, Temple of The Vampire (ToV) is founded.

    By far the most popular vampire (RPG) role-playing game is entitled “Vampire: The Masquerade” is created by Mark Rein-Hagen and published in 1991 by White Wolf Game Studio. Transylvanian Society of Dracula is founded in Bucharest by a group of leading Romanian historians, ethnographers, folklorists, tourist experts, writers and artists; as well as non-Romanian experts in the field.

    The live venue La Commedia del Sangue: Vampyr Theatre opens in NYC. The scripts are based on interviews with existing vampire communities and occult groups conducted by playwright Tony Sokol.

    The Sanguinarium is founded by Father Sebastian Todd (a.k.a Aaron Todd Hoyt, Todd Sabertooth Father Todd, Father Sebastian, Father Todd Sebastian, Sebastiaan Van Houten) This leads to the establishment of the Ordo Strigoi Vii.

    Oprah Winfrey forms “prayer circle” outside the premiere of the film adaptation of Anne Rice’s “Interview with the Vampire” to work against the forces of darkness she believes the film is calling down.

    Sean Manchester writes an account of his perspective on “The Highgate Vampire” (1995, rev, 1991)

    A female reporter named Susan Walsh disappears while writing a story on downtown Manhattan’s mysterious “vampire underground”.

    Sean Manchester expands on and releases “The Vampire Hunter’s Handbook”.
    The remarkable Long Black Veil or “LBV” events truly hold a unique place in the history of New York City’s nightlife. LBV began in 1997 as “Long Black Veil & the Vampyre Lounge” on the second Wednesday of each month at the legendary MOTHER nightclub on 14th and Washington Streets in New York City. The Black Veil
    The Black Veil represents a code of vampyre ethics and common sense widely accepted by the vampyre subculture. It is akin to the Strigoi Vii Covenant and although they are different documents they are, in essence, compatible.
    Originally authored in 1997, by Father Sebastian of House Sahjaza, it was written as a code of conduct for patrons of the vampyre haven, Long Black Veil, in New York City.

    The original ‘Black Veil’, now referred to as version 1, was derived from Renaissance Fair etiquette and from existing codes of conduct in the BDSM / fetish scene. There was, undoubtedly, some influence absorbed from the White Wolf Game Studio role playing game Vampire: the Masquerade as this afforded the only set of “terms” being used in the community at the time. The Black Veil was amended by ‘Lady Melanie’ in 1998 and 1999, and has been revised since then by Michelle Belanger of House Kheperu.

    In the spring (Northern) of 1997 the first webpage of appears.

    Katherine Ramsland (clinical psychologist; journalist and bestselling biographer) made contact with Father Sebastian Todd and asked him to serve as a consultant for a book she was writing entitled “Piercing the Darkness: Undercover with Vampires in America Today .” Her intention was to follow in the last known footsteps of investigative reporter Susan Walsh (who disappeared around the same time as the historic Vampyre Ball at the Limelight in July 1996.) A release party for the book was held at LBV in 1998.
    The Z/n Society, under Goddess Rosemary comes to its latest incarnation, Temple-House Sahjaza.
    The original Iron Garden (1998-2003) is founded. The founding elders are, Lord Vahmp of House LIDEIM, Lord Kage of House Gangrel, Lord Ramirez of House Ramirez, Scorpio of House Draconus and Ronin Elders Lord Vailen Moon and Madame X.

    Sphynxcat’s Real Vampires Support Page established on the internet.
    The website was first registered in April.

    COVICA, a council of collected elders from different traditions, again revised the Black Veil. It was at this time that the publication gained widespread popularity and was translated into Portuguese, German and Spanish. It was also distributed as the “13 Rules of the Community”. 2000 saw the closing of MOTHER but Father Sebastian chose to continue the event by relocating to True nightclub on 23rd Street near Broadway in Manhattan. LBV remained there for two more years. The Vampire Codex is written by occultist and psychic vampire Michelle Belanger and published by Sanguinarium Press. The Vampire Codex has a significant impact on the worldwide community of psychic vampires, becoming the fundamental text used by numerous Houses, Orders, Covens, and Clans. It has influenced the teachings of vampire groups throughout the US, Canada, and Western Europe.
    Also in 2000, Ronin Elders Madame X and Lord Vailen Moon conceived the House of the Dreaming and founded it along with Wulfsunus and Algernon.

    The Vampire Research Society Worldwide Organisation is founded.

    Michelle Belanger, along with input from Father Sebastian and others, presented The Black veil version 2 as a philosophy and tradition of ethics, not rules. This code is annotated as being voluntary and was designed to set an example for the community. This updated and simplified version of the Black Veil was not declared as a set of laws or rules and no longer carried the alternative title “13 Rules of the Community,” but was written as an example set of ethics and ideas.

    The web/culture resource Smoke and Mirrors is created and opened by Lady CG.

    A&E’s Secret Lives of Vampires documentary is made with interviewees: Michelle Belanger and Lady CG.

    History Channel’s Vampire Secrets airs with interviewees The Madame Webb, Father Sebastiaan, Michelle Belanger, ‘Vlad’ and ‘Sky’. This is the documentary that deals with Dr. Slate’s research.

    The Vampire & Energy Work Research Survey (VEWRS) with 379 Questions and the Advanced Vampirism & Energy Work Research Survey (AVEWRS) with 688 Questions are conducted. From 2006 to 2009 a combined response total (VEWRS & AVEWRS) reached over 1,450 surveys or over 670,000 individually answered questions; making it the largest and most in-depth research study ever conducted on the real vampire/vampyre community or subculture. The surveys are translated from English into French, Spanish, German and Russian. In all seventeen countries are represented: Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Ireland, Latvia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Romania, Russia, United Kingdom and the United States.
    The group body, Voices of the Vampire Community (VVC) is founded to develop friendly relations among the various Houses, Covens, Orders, organizations, and individual leaders of the vampire community.

    Jonathon “The Impaler” Sharkey’s bid for Minnesota Governor is cut short when he is arrested by Minnesota police on an outstanding Indiana arrest warrant.

    History Channel’s Monster Quest (S2, E11) entitled ‘Vampires in America’ airs with interviewees: Joy Poulos and Michelle Belanger (
    In film: Writer/Director Laurent Courau releases a documentary entitled “Vampyres” (Avalanche Productions) Narrated by Emmett Williamson the documentary stars Father Sebastian, Michelle Belanger, Don Henrie, Ice Pick, Lord Rex, Lukas Zpira and The Madame Webb.
    In late 2007 “Dark Nations” is founded by Madame X of House of The Dreaming and Lord Khan, initially gathering over 2 dozen Houses and Orders into a collective effort designed to encourage communication and interactions through the Vampire, Therian and Otherkin society world-wide.

    The first results of the VEWRS and AVEWRS surveys are released.
    Jonathon “The Impaler” Sharkey threatens to impale George W. Bush and is investigated by the United States Secret Service
    In literature: Michelle Belanger’s book “Vampires; In Their Own Words” is released.

    Pardubice, East Bohemia, July 11. Archaeologists believe they have uncovered a 4000-year-old grave in Mikulovice, eastern Bohemia, containing the remains of what might have been considered a vampire at the time. One of the graves, from the early Bronze Age burial site was situated somewhat aside from the others and the male skeleton in it was weighed down with two big stones, one on his chest and the other on his head.
    “Remains treated in this way are now considered as vampiric. The dead man’s contemporaries were afraid that he might leave his grave and return to the world,” Radko Sedlacek from the East Bohemia Museum said.

    Real Vampire News is conceived and started by John Reason. The aim is to become a “newspaper” type resource for the online participants of the modern real vampire subculture.

    The Atlanta Vampire Alliance and Suscitatio LLC commence a second series of studies to complement the 2006-2009 VEWR’s and AVEWR’s surveys. This effort will reportedly include involve the collection of medical testing and information.

    The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children issued an alert after a 16-year-old girl from Faribault, Minnesota ran away with Jonathon Sharkey. The alert described the teenager as an “endangered runaway”.

    In Italy the Liga Italiana Real Vampires association was founded by (current) Presidente Davide Santandrea. June 2012
    Two medieval “vampire” skeletons emerged near a monastery in the Bulgarian Black Sea town of Sozopol, local archaeologists announced. Dating back 800 years to the Middle Ages, the skeletons were unearthed with iron rods pierced through their chests — evidence of an exorcism against a vampire.

    October 1, 2012
    John Reason’s Real Vampire Life E-Zine begins a yearlong survey of the real vampire sub-culture entitled “The Living Vampire – A social survey”, aimed at gathering social and demographic information about the modern Vampire culture.

    The Liga Italiana Real Vampires becomes a legally recognised entity in Italy.
    September 31, 2013
    John Reason’s Real Vampire Life survey, “The Living Vampire – A social survey”, concludes.
    November 3rd, 2013
    I.C.E – the International Council of Elders- is formed by Stefan Resurrectus and a group of long time and active members of the modern vampire culture.

    December 30, 2013
    First publication of part one of the results of “The Living Vampire – A social survey” is published on John Reason’s Real Vampire Life E-Zine (

    The New Jersey IRON GARDEN was resurrected in 2014 by Madame X, Traveler Asura-MacPhee, Finna Beruthiel DeElf, Herr Wulfsunus, Blueeyesoulof Ra Horakhty & Asif Murad.

    March 6, 2014
    After a lengthy hiatus Lady CG announces the re-opening of Smoke and Mirrors as a resource and active website.

    Lady Alexia Ashford establishes a blog site which goes on to become
    It will later develop to become “The Red Cellar” (March 2016)

    August 5, 2015
    Merticus Stevens of the VCN, VVC, Atlanta Vampire Alliance and Suscitatio Enterprises LLC posted advice of a tragic event that rocks the modern vampire world. The passing of Sanguinarius E. Sanguinarius, a.k.a. Sangi.

    Her legacy, and contribution, to the modern vampire movement will never be forgotten nor will it ever be underestimated. RIP Sanguinarius | 1970-2015 |

    Stemming from the web resource “The Red Cellar” web resource is launched as a sister site in March. The new site quickly takes over as the primary website and becomes the base for the Med-Sang group.
    October 2016
    Following on from a widely distributed appeal for donations toward running costs Merticus Stevens announces the closure (Oct 31) of the web resource Vampire Community News (VCN) and foreshadows the closure of other web resources.

    June 2017
    The “Unity Project” and web resource “Blood Nations” are established in the modern Vampire Culture.
    Organised and developed by King (Heir Apparent to New Orleans) Maven Lore of The House of Lore, King Logan South of the Vampire Court of Austin and Queen of the Vampire Court of Memphis, Lady Gia Ahlia Bathory von Ecsed, Countess of Cachtrice. The combined projects aim at uniting, voluntarily, as many Houses, or ‘Courts’, as possible into one cooperative, unified, entity.

    August 2017
    John Reason’s Real Vampire Life E-Zine tops 200,000 page views since rebuilding the site from a catastrophic server crash in 2012.

    September 2017
    The RVL E-Zine establishes a recorded readership in more than 100 countries around the world and, for the first time, holds to a page view standard of over 2500 page views per month.

    To be continued…

    NB: This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners. As always, copyright and intellectual rights remain with the original owners/authors of materials incorporated in this presentation.

    Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favour of fair use

    "All that we see or seem is but a dream within a dream" ~ E.A. Poe

  • #837


    What a wonderful resource! 2005 is also the year my Sang handbook Practical Vampirism for Modern Vampires was written 🙂 the first book of its kind, written BY a Sang, for other Sangs.

    I love what you’ve done here.

  • #843
    Tim Bey-Sahjaza
    Tim Bey-Sahjaza

    Good afternoon and thank you dear lady.
    As I said, a labour of love and currently gathering information for revision 15.

    I was always disappointed every time I clicked on a link that said “Vampire Timeline” only to find it about one third complete, listing Vampire crimes or haphazardly mixing entertainment, history and real life crime. Frustrating. That’s when I decided that a complete (as nearly as possible) and as accurate as possible a ‘history’ needed to be put together.

    You’ll not I have avoided any contemporary fiction inclusions, Hollywood and general entertainment inclusions because – imho – they have not contributed to the history of the Vampire, merely muddied the waters and obscured the view of what the Vampire really is.

    Thanks again for your praise of the effort, I appreciate it and may I say, looking around here, I love what you’ve done with the place…!!!
    Blessings and deepest respects,

    "All that we see or seem is but a dream within a dream" ~ E.A. Poe

  • #854


    Very informative. Thank you so much for sharing T. Now thanks to this wonderful article i find out who Lady CG truly are, I thought Smoke and Mirrors is a new web resource but now thanks to this article I see the truth; S&M is a mature and strong resource with 16 years of experience.
    Much respect for you Lady CG.

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